Raspberry pie 4B (4G/8G) with Ubuntu 18.04 desktop + ROS(Melodic)+Realsense SDK (T265+D400 series)
Nothing to say, just record your own track here, only to ensure that the following content has been practiced by yourself. There are not too many principles in the following content. It is estimated that I am walking around with a lot of articles read by other bloggers, and I will not introduce them either.
win computer software, can transfer files with each other in the same LAN through IP address, raspberry-derived user name, password.
Attached disc link:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1Kw09GvhxD7o871dY0FA-0w
Extraction Code: 0000
win computer software, can login to the Raspberry Pie desktop remotely within the same LAN through IP address, Raspberry Pie user name, password.
Attached disc link:https://pan.baidu.com/s/18_tvVH8Q-FTJOjQIGBZdyg
Extraction Code: 0000
LAN IP Scanner
win computer software, sweeps all IP addresses in LAN
Attached disc link:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1hxQVjk5dq_X45CSroEVFoQ
Extraction Code: 0000
1. Download and install the raspberry pie 4B image (Ubuntu-mate-18.04)
1. Raspberry pie 4B server mirror
Attached my Baidu link
Extraction Code: 0000
Raspberry Pie 4B Universal Server Mirror, Post Install Desktop
2. Prepare items
2.1 flash memory card larger than or equal to 32G
2.2 raspberry pie 4B (4G/8G)
Pit Avoidance Strategy: Prefer flash memory card, or other large brands, or after a period of time, unknown can not turn on normally or other problems
3. Mirror burning
3.1 Software Download
Extraction Code: 0000
Extraction Code: 0000
3.2 Memory card needs to be formatted before use!!!
After opening the software SDFormatter to display the characters, click Formatter directly, and other parameters do not need to be modified. Make sure you select the characters you want to format. If you format other disks sideways, you will feel uncomfortable.
3.3 Open the burning software balenaEtcher to select the image you want to burn and click Flash
It will be burned in about three or four minutes, depending on your memory card reading and writing speed, no operation is required after burning, just pull out the memory card directly., the top left is green, indicating that burning is normal, if it is red, you have to format it with software and re-burn it
3.4 The memory card is inserted into the raspberry pie. The first power-on requires an external monitor, keyboard, mouse and a network cable. (If the first power-on does not display properly, disconnect the power and power it up again.)
Here are two lights next to the raspberry pie, which are suitable for partners who can't turn it on properly.
The status represented by the raspberry pie ACT LED flashing mode
4. Install desktop software
Networking is very simple. The network cable is plugged directly into the router.
4.1 Change account password after raspberry pie starts
You will be prompted to enter an account: ubuntu.
Enter password: ubuntu
Enter the current password: ubuntu,
The password you want to set (like the lowest 8 characters, just a simple point, which I will use frequently in the future, 123456789 for myself)
Confirm your password again
4.2 First check to see if you are connected to the Internet (many ways, see your hobbies)
Here's the recommended input:
Here you can see some useful information. Under wlan0 you can see your IP address, which you can use later through a ssh Remote connection.
4.3 Raspberry Pie Update Software
1) Enter the command:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade -y
(Command parsing: sudo apt-get update is to read the list of software and save it on the local computer;
sudo apt-get upgrade locally installed software, compared with the software just downloaded in the list of corresponding software, if found that the installed software version is too low, it will prompt you to update, generally about half an hour, will prompt you if you update, YES/NO, select y)
2) Enter after installation:
(Command resolution: After the update, you need to restart the operation, just like King pesticides, so it makes sense to reopen it after the update.)
3) Enter the command:
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-mate-desktop
(Command parsing: Install desktop environment, just one command is needed, then wait quietly for about half an hour, network speed, raspberry pie speed have a lot to do)
4) Enter after installation:
4.4 Change source (you can also follow other online tutorials) can be done or not!!
Be careful:(Change is OK, the little partner who can ride the ladder does not need operation, the little partner without ladder suggests changing source. The reason for changing source is that the server of Ubuntu is in a foreign country, you will visit very slowly and download things slowly, so you need to change the mirror source in China, such as Ali, Tsinghua, etc. There is a saying on the Internet that choosing the right source according to the geographical distribution, the little partner can find itFind resources.)
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
Replace the contents with the mirror source you want to change
deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial main multiverse restricted universe deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-backports main multiverse restricted universe deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-proposed main multiverse restricted universe deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-security main multiverse restricted universe deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-updates main multiverse restricted universe deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial main multiverse restricted universe deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-backports main multiverse restricted universe deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-proposed main multiverse restricted universe deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-security main multiverse restricted universe deb-src http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ xenial-updates main multiverse restricted universe
sudo apt update sudo apt dist-upgrade sudo apt clean
Most often there will be a lot of errors after changing the source, such as no key found
You can Baidu sudo apt uodate can not find the key
It's probably this
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver 'hkp://Keyserver.ubuntu.com:80'-- recv-key // followed by a key indicating you are missing, about a dozen digits, mixed with upper case English
4.5 Install raspi-config
Its purpose is to configure your raspberry pie system. Since the Ubuntu system is not installed, you need to install it manually yourself.
4.5.1 Input Command Installation Dependency:
sudo apt install whiptail parted lua5.1 alsa-utils psmisc
4.5.2 Enter command to download raspi-config
sudo dpkg -i raspi-config_20200727_all.deb
4.5.4 Check for lack of dependencies
sudo apt-get -f -y install
4.5.6 Select by arrow keys: Interfacing Options Enter Confirm Selection SSH Confirm YES OK
Finally select < Finish >
4.5.7 and restart:
5. To prevent the raspberry pie from running out of memory, you need to increase the swap space.
5.1 Check existing memory
5.2 Establishing swap space
cd /opt/ sudo mkdir swap cd swap sudo touch swap
5.3 Set the swap memory size. Depending on the size of my own memory card, the 64G card I use has 8G swap space (my 8G swap size, 1G=1024, which is suitable for me)
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/opt/swap/swap bs=1024 count=8162000
It will take a long time to get back to the results. Don't think it's stuck.
sudo mkswap /opt/swap/swap ///There will be warnings, no fear, normal phenomena
5.5 Enable swap space
sudo swapon /opt/swap/swap
5.6 Is Query Enabled Normally
Display established, write partition next
sudo nano /etc/fstab Join on the last line /opt/swap/sawp /swap swap defaults 0 0
Ctrl + O save, ctrl + x exit
Fuck, I'm not set up to manually open the swap space each time I restart. sudo su swapon /opt/swap/swap open swapoff /opt/swap/swap Close
Now the raspberry pie has been mirrored.
2. Install ROS (Melodic Binary Installation)
1 Download ROS
Official website: http://wiki.ros.org/melodic/Installation/Ubuntu
1.1 Download and install:
Add to ROS Mirror source: sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list' Set key: sudo apt-key adv --keyserver 'hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80' --recv-key C1CF6E31E6BADE8868B172B4F42ED6FBAB17C654 Refresh the installation list: sudo apt update install ROS Desktop Full Edition: sudo apt install ros-melodic-desktop-full install ROS Common software: sudo apt install python-rosdep python-rosinstall python-rosinstall-generator python-wstool build-essential sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-rqt* sudo apt-get install rosdep
ROS update is the most difficult step, because it requires connecting to foreign servers and then comparing with the ROS files you just downloaded. Are you missing files and lack of dependency, because the servers are abroad, they often can't be connected. Let's check through the command, which web addresses do you want to connect to?
sudo nano /etc/ros/rosdep/sources.list.d/20-default.list
There are five Web addresses here: raw.githubusercontent.com
Then, we Baidu searched for the IP address of raw.githubusercontent.com as follows: As of the time I wrote this tutorial, the current IP address of this website was 188.8.131.52
So enter the command:
sudo nano /etc/hosts 184.108.40.206 raw.githubusercontent.com //Add a sentence at the end Ctrl+o:Preservation Enter Confirmation Ctrl+x Sign out
2 I recommend three ways to summarize
2.1 Wall Flip
Wallpaper buddies directly
sudo rosdep init
Initialize finish as prompted
sudo rosdep update
that will do
2.2 Find a router with high network bandwidth.
For example, school networks, big business networks, or mobile phone hotspots are all possible. This method may depend on luck, success at one time, or three or four hours or more. To sum up, it is watch! This is a theology! The best time period is after 10 p.m. to before 8:30 p.m. on the next day!!!! Try to change another person's hotspot one time, and tryAnd switch back to your hotspot, which is a little more efficient
When we run sudo rosdep init several times, we get an error as follows:
Then enter the command:
sudo rm /etc/ros/rosdep/sources.list.d/20-default.list
Delete this file and re-enter:
sudo rosdep init
When the initialization is finished, type sudo rosdep update as prompted. 99% of the runs will not succeed at one time. That's OK. Try a few more times and keep typing: sudo rosdep update
Try about ten times, you can see your implementation. It is mentioned above that when ROS is updated, you need to connect to five Web addresses abroad. You have a record of commands from your program. Every time you run an update, there will be several web addresses that can be connected to three or four web addresses. That way, you can go on and keep commanding updates.Until you succeed. If you can only connect one or two web addresses per update, then don't go down and try the third way.
2.3 Replace Target File
Explain how to install this method first
First download the latest ROS list file, then modify / etc/ros/rosdep/sources
So how good is that? Read the explanation and consider it yourself
Advantages: No long wait, half an hour,
Disadvantage: If you update it later, it will not compare with the official latest directory, unless you modify the file again.
I suggest: the first two methods are the best, it is really not possible to use this method again, but also to leave a way for yourself.
It is important to note that the path to your files must be written and that you carefully look at the folders of the files you download. This author has written in great detail.
2.4 Check if ROS is installed successfully, routine check
The code is as follows
Open three terminals and command them separately: roscore start-up ros core rosrun turtlrsim turtlesim_node Run the Tortoise routine rosrun turtlrsim turtle_teleop_key Run the Tortoise Control Program Then place the cursor on the last port and use the arrow keys to control the direction of the tortoise's movement. q"Exit the program
3. Binary Installation of MAVROS
1.Binary Installation MAVROS
The code is as follows
Add Source: sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list' Add Key sudo apt-key adv --keyserver 'hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80' --recv-key C1CF6E31E6BADE8868B172B4F42ED6FBAB17C654 Update Software Library sudo apt update install MAVROS And feature packs sudo apt install ros-melodic-mavros ros-melodic-mavros-extras -y sudo apt-get install python-catkin-tools python-rosinstall-generator -y sudo apt install libpcl1 ros-melodic-octomap-* wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mavlink/mavros/master/mavros/scripts/install_geographiclib_datasets.sh chmod +x install_geographiclib_datasets.sh sudo ./install_geographiclib_datasets.sh
2. Install the vision_to_mavros package
The code is as follows
Create a workspace mkdir -p ~/xxx_ws/src (xxx Plan for yourself) cd ~/xxx_ws/src Download Documents git clone https://github.com/hoangthien94/vision_to_mavros.git cd ~/xxx_ws catkin_make cd echo "source ~/xxx_ws/devel/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc source ~/.bashrc
3. Source Installation MAVROS
Look at this section, no action required
mkdir -p ~/px4_tools/catkin_ws/src cd ~/px4_tools/catkin_ws ## Install dependencies sudo apt-get install python-wstool python-rosinstall-generator python-catkin-tools -y ## Initialise wstool wstool init ~/px4_tools/catkin_ws/src ## Build MAVROS ### Get source (upstream - released) rosinstall_generator --upstream mavros | tee /tmp/mavros.rosinstall ### Get latest released mavlink package rosinstall_generator mavlink | tee -a /tmp/mavros.rosinstall ### Setup workspace & install deps wstool merge -t src /tmp/mavros.rosinstall wstool update -t src rosdep install --from-paths src --ignore-src --rosdistro melodic -y ./src/mavros/mavros/scripts/install_geographiclib_datasets.sh ## Build! catkin build ## Re-source environment to reflect new packages/build environment echo "source ~/px4_tools/catkin_ws/devel/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc source ~/.bashrc
4.MAVROS and Flight Control Communication
There are many methods for MAVROS to communicate with flight control. There are two kinds of records here: data line direct insertion, tty serial port
4.1 Data Line Direct Interpolation
Connect Flight Control with Raspberry Pie directly using a common data line, just like Flight Control downloads firmware
Raspberry pie query port
cd /dev ls See if there is any port display, mostly yes ttyACM0，During this period, it is not recommended to plug in other devices besides the mouse and keyboard, in order to avoid your confusion.
4.2tty to Serial Port
Prepare a USB to TTL module, ask your boss before you buy it to support 921600 bit rate, 57600 baud rate will also be used, but after a large amount of data communication, a lot of errors will occur.
cd /dev ls See if there is any port display, mostly yes ttyUSB0，During this period, it is not recommended to plug in other devices besides the mouse and keyboard, in order to avoid your confusion.
4.3 Modify launch file
cd roscd mavros/launch ls You can see a lot launch file If you use APM Firmware, just sudo vim apm.launch If you use PX4 Firmware, just sudo vim px4.launch
Modify the phrase "Circle the photo". For example, I use a data line to insert directly.
In the front unchanged, change ttyUSB0 to ttyACM0 (based on the port number you find above) and change the baud rate to the same as you fly empty settings, otherwise you can not communicate, after modification is completed,:wq!Save Exit
Open a new terminal, enter
roslaunch mavros px4.launch perhaps roslaunch mavros apm.launch
This is the communication success, the red error is to prompt me that the flight control is not adjusted correctly, the prompt content is the same as the prompt error you see in the ground station.
If you often use a direct cable connection and occasionally use a USB serial connection, you can use this command below without having to modify the file as above
roslaunch mavros px4.launch fcu_url:=/dev/ttyUSB0:921600 Same as apm firmware roslaunch mavros apm.launch fcu_url:=/dev/ttyUSB0:921600 You must use your own port number
IV. Installation of Intel Realsense SDK
1. Check your own GCC version with gcc-v first, usually gcc-7, if not gcc-6 you need to install gcc-6 first
Install as follows
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install build-essential software-properties-common -y sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-toolchain-r/test -y sudo apt-get install gcc-snapshot -y sudo apt-get install gcc-6 g++-6 -y sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/gcc gcc /usr/bin/gcc-6 60 --slave /usr/bin/g++ g++ /usr/bin/g++-6
2. Below is the installation of the Realsense SDK (a binary installation is recommended)
2.1 Installation Dependency
cd sudo apt-get install git cmake libssl-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev pkg-config libgtk-3-dev sudo apt-get install libglfw3-dev libgl1-mesa-dev libglu1-mesa-dev sudo apt install git libssl-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev pkg-config -y sudo apt install cmake python3-dev raspberrypi-kernel-headers -y
2.2 Add Mirror Source
secret key sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-key F6E65AC044F831AC80A06380C8B3A55A6F3EFCDE || sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-key F6E65AC044F831AC80A06380C8B3A55A6F3EFCDE image source sudo add-apt-repository "deb https://librealsense.intel.com/Debian/apt-repo $(lsb_release -cs) main" -u
sudo apt-get install librealsense2-dkms sudo apt-get install librealsense2-utils sudo apt-get install librealsense2-dev sudo apt-get install librealsense2-dbg
2.4 New Terminal Checks for Successful Installation
Plug in to switch between 2D or 3D
3.Intel Realsense SDK source installation (recommended)
The code is as follows (example):
cd ~ git clone https://github.com/IntelRealSense/librealsense.git cd librealsense # Install udev rules sudo cp config/99-realsense-libusb.rules /etc/udev/rules.d/ sudo udevadm control --reload-rules && udevadm trigger # Create the destination directory mkdir build cd build # Remove extra files if this is not your first run xarg sudo rm < install_manifest.txt rm CMakeCache.txt export CC=/usr/bin/gcc-6 export CXX=/usr/bin/g++-6 Copy one of the following lines \Remove cmake -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE="Release"\ -D FORCE_LIBUVC=ON \ -D BUILD_PYTHON_BINDINGS=ON \ -D BUILD_EXAMPLES=true \ -D FORCE_RSUSB_BACKEND=ON \ -DBUILD_WITH_TM2=false \ -DIMPORT_DEPTH_CAM_FW=false \ -D BUILD_EXAMPLES=ON .. sudo make uninstall make clean make sudo make install #Executor 1 will have some errors, temporarily regardless, I do not know if there is any impact on the later use, temporarily first such, there are problems to say again sudo ldconfig # Finally, reboot the pi: sudo reboot
4. Use ROS package to read T265 data
4.1 Installation Dependency
sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-ddynamic-reconfigure
4.2 Download the ROS realsense-ros package
Create a workspace mkdir -p ~/xxx_ws/src (xxx Plan for yourself) cd ~/xxx_ws/src git clone https://github.com/IntelRealSense/realsense-ros.git cd realsense-ros/ git checkout `git tag | sort -V | grep -P "^2.\d+\.\d+" | tail -1` cd .. catkin_make -DCATKIN_ENABLE_TESTING=False -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release Start test demo，You can see that T265 Posture data of
4.3 Check that the t265 data is working (using two terminals)
The code is as follows (example):
roslaunch realsense2_camera rs_t265.launch rostopic echo /tf (Red circle is a three-dimensional coordinate, pick up t265 Move and see if the data is accurate. The unit is M )
4.4 Mapping-related Dependencies
Mapping Module Dependency Installation
sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-rqt ros-melodic-rqt-common-plugins ros-melodic-rqt-robot-plugins -y install rtabmap: sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-rtabmap* install Octomap: sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-octomap-* install cartographer sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-cartographer*
5. A command starts the communication between T265 and Raspberry Pie and Flight Control
These commands generally need to be run to communicate between the three modules
Open three ports separately roslaunch realsense2_camera rs_t265.launch roslaunch vision_to_mavros t265_tf_to_mavros.launch sudo chmod a+rw /dev/ttyUSB0 /Before using ports, assign values roslaunch mavros apm.launch fcu_url:=/dev/ttyUSB0:57600 have access to roslaunch vision_to_mavros t265_all_nodes.launch Starting these three commands at once saves you a lot of effort
Certainly some commands are wrong. If there are any errors, please correct them. Thank you.