Detailed explanation of Spring Security database based verification process

Spring Security verification flow chart

Relevant explanations (read them carefully)

AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter abstract class

/**
     * Call ා requireauthentication (HttpServletRequest, httpservletresponse) to determine whether the validation operation is required.
     * If authentication is required, the ා attemptAuthentication(HttpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse) method is called.
     * There are three results:
     * 1,Returns an Authentication object.
     * The configured SessionAuthenticationStrategy 'will be called,
     * Then we call the #successfulAuthentication(HttpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse, FilterChain, Authentication) method.
     * 2,AuthenticationException occurred while validating.
     * #unsuccessfulAuthentication(HttpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse, AuthenticationException) Method will be called.
     * 3,Returns Null indicating incomplete authentication. Assuming that the subclass does some necessary work (such as redirection) to continue processing the validation, the method will return immediately.
     * It is assumed that the latter request will be received by this method, and the Authentication object returned is not empty.
     */
    public void doFilter(ServletRequest req, ServletResponse res, FilterChain chain)
            throws IOException, ServletException {

        HttpServletRequest request = (HttpServletRequest) req;
        HttpServletResponse response = (HttpServletResponse) res;

        if (!requiresAuthentication(request, response)) {
            chain.doFilter(request, response);

            return;
        }

        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Request is to process authentication");
        }

        Authentication authResult;

        try {
            authResult = attemptAuthentication(request, response);
            if (authResult == null) {
                // return immediately as subclass has indicated that it hasn't completed
                // authentication
                return;
            }
            sessionStrategy.onAuthentication(authResult, request, response);
        }
        catch (InternalAuthenticationServiceException failed) {
            logger.error(
                    "An internal error occurred while trying to authenticate the user.",
                    failed);
            unsuccessfulAuthentication(request, response, failed);

            return;
        }
        catch (AuthenticationException failed) {
            // Authentication failed
            unsuccessfulAuthentication(request, response, failed);

            return;
        }

        // Authentication success
        if (continueChainBeforeSuccessfulAuthentication) {
            chain.doFilter(request, response);
        }

        successfulAuthentication(request, response, chain, authResult);
    }

UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter (subclass of AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter)

public Authentication attemptAuthentication(HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response) throws AuthenticationException {
        if (postOnly && !request.getMethod().equals("POST")) {
            throw new AuthenticationServiceException(
                    "Authentication method not supported: " + request.getMethod());
        }

        String username = obtainUsername(request);
        String password = obtainPassword(request);

        if (username == null) {
            username = "";
        }

        if (password == null) {
            password = "";
        }

        username = username.trim();

        UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authRequest = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(
                username, password);

        // Allow subclasses to set the "details" property
        setDetails(request, authRequest);

        return this.getAuthenticationManager().authenticate(authRequest);
    }

#The attemptAuthentication() method generates the UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken object from the username and password in the request for authentication manager (that is, this.getAuthenticationManager().authenticate(authRequest)).

By default, the AuthenticationManager injected into the Spring container is ProviderManager.

ProviderManager (implementation class of AuthenticationManager)

/**
     * Attempt to verify Authentication object
     * AuthenticationProvider The list will be tried continuously until the AuthenticationProvider indicates that it can authenticate the passed Authentication object. The AuthenticationProvider will then be used to attempt Authentication.
     * If more than one AuthenticationProvider supports verifying the passed Authentication object, the first one will determine the result, overriding any possible authenticationexceptions raised by earlier support for AuthenticationProviders. Subsequent AuthenticationProviders will not be attempted after successful Authentication.
     * If none of the last AuthenticationProviders successfully validates the Authentication object, an AuthenticationException is thrown.
     */
    public Authentication authenticate(Authentication authentication)
            throws AuthenticationException {
        Class<? extends Authentication> toTest = authentication.getClass();
        AuthenticationException lastException = null;
        Authentication result = null;
        boolean debug = logger.isDebugEnabled();

        for (AuthenticationProvider provider : getProviders()) {
            if (!provider.supports(toTest)) {
                continue;
            }

            if (debug) {
                logger.debug("Authentication attempt using "
                        + provider.getClass().getName());
            }

            try {
                result = provider.authenticate(authentication);

                if (result != null) {
                    copyDetails(authentication, result);
                    break;
                }
            }
            catch (AccountStatusException e) {
                prepareException(e, authentication);
                // SEC-546: Avoid polling additional providers if auth failure is due to
                // invalid account status
                throw e;
            }
            catch (InternalAuthenticationServiceException e) {
                prepareException(e, authentication);
                throw e;
            }
            catch (AuthenticationException e) {
                lastException = e;
            }
        }

        if (result == null && parent != null) {
            // Allow the parent to try.
            try {
                result = parent.authenticate(authentication);
            }
            catch (ProviderNotFoundException e) {
                // ignore as we will throw below if no other exception occurred prior to
                // calling parent and the parent
                // may throw ProviderNotFound even though a provider in the child already
                // handled the request
            }
            catch (AuthenticationException e) {
                lastException = e;
            }
        }

        if (result != null) {
            if (eraseCredentialsAfterAuthentication
                    && (result instanceof CredentialsContainer)) {
                // Authentication is complete. Remove credentials and other secret data
                // from authentication
                ((CredentialsContainer) result).eraseCredentials();
            }

            eventPublisher.publishAuthenticationSuccess(result);
            return result;
        }

        // Parent was null, or didn't authenticate (or throw an exception).

        if (lastException == null) {
            lastException = new ProviderNotFoundException(messages.getMessage(
                    "ProviderManager.providerNotFound",
                    new Object[] { toTest.getName() },
                    "No AuthenticationProvider found for {0}"));
        }

        prepareException(lastException, authentication);

        throw lastException;
    }

It is not hard to see from the code that the authentication is verified by the provider. The core method is:

Authentication result = provider.authenticate(authentication);

provider here is AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider,
AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider is the implementation of the AuthenticationProvider. Take a look at its ා authenticate(authentication) method:

// Verification
public Authentication authenticate(Authentication authentication)
            throws AuthenticationException {
        Assert.isInstanceOf(UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken.class, authentication,
                messages.getMessage(
                        "AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider.onlySupports",
                        "Only UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken is supported"));

        // Determine username
        String username = (authentication.getPrincipal() == null) ? "NONE_PROVIDED"
                : authentication.getName();

        boolean cacheWasUsed = true;
        UserDetails user = this.userCache.getUserFromCache(username);

        if (user == null) {
            cacheWasUsed = false;

            try {
                user = retrieveUser(username,
                        (UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
            }
            catch (UsernameNotFoundException notFound) {
                logger.debug("User '" + username + "' not found");

                if (hideUserNotFoundExceptions) {
                    throw new BadCredentialsException(messages.getMessage(
                            "AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider.badCredentials",
                            "Bad credentials"));
                }
                else {
                    throw notFound;
                }
            }

            Assert.notNull(user,
                    "retrieveUser returned null - a violation of the interface contract");
        }

        try {
            preAuthenticationChecks.check(user);
            additionalAuthenticationChecks(user,
                    (UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
        }
        catch (AuthenticationException exception) {
            if (cacheWasUsed) {
                // There was a problem, so try again after checking
                // we're using latest data (i.e. not from the cache)
                cacheWasUsed = false;
                user = retrieveUser(username,
                        (UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
                preAuthenticationChecks.check(user);
                additionalAuthenticationChecks(user,
                        (UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
            }
            else {
                throw exception;
            }
        }

        postAuthenticationChecks.check(user);

        if (!cacheWasUsed) {
            this.userCache.putUserInCache(user);
        }

        Object principalToReturn = user;

        if (forcePrincipalAsString) {
            principalToReturn = user.getUsername();
        }

        return createSuccessAuthentication(principalToReturn, authentication, user);
    }

AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider has a built-in cache mechanism. If the user details information cannot be obtained from the cache, the following methods are called to obtain the user information, and then the user information is compared with the information sent by the user to determine whether the authentication is successful.

// Get user information
UserDetails user = retrieveUser(username,
 (UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);

#The retrieveUser() method is implemented in DaoAuthenticationProvider, which is a subclass of AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider. The specific implementation is as follows:

protected final UserDetails retrieveUser(String username,
            UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication)
            throws AuthenticationException {
        UserDetails loadedUser;

        try {
            loadedUser = this.getUserDetailsService().loadUserByUsername(username);
        }
        catch (UsernameNotFoundException notFound) {
            if (authentication.getCredentials() != null) {
                String presentedPassword = authentication.getCredentials().toString();
                passwordEncoder.isPasswordValid(userNotFoundEncodedPassword,
                        presentedPassword, null);
            }
            throw notFound;
        }
        catch (Exception repositoryProblem) {
            throw new InternalAuthenticationServiceException(
                    repositoryProblem.getMessage(), repositoryProblem);
        }

        if (loadedUser == null) {
            throw new InternalAuthenticationServiceException(
                    "UserDetailsService returned null, which is an interface contract violation");
        }
        return loadedUser;
    }

You can see that the return object userDetails here is obtained by the loadUserByUsername(username) of UserDetailsService.

Tags: Spring

Posted on Thu, 09 Jan 2020 12:36:25 -0500 by b0ksah