English grammar learning notes (10) prepositions

This is part 10 notes: prepositions.

1, Classic examples

2, Review of knowledge points (corresponding example sentence number)

3, Chinese translation of example sentences (Reference)

1, Classic examples

1. The book on the desk is mine.

2. Put the book on the desk.

1.1 subject of Prepositions

3. I went shopping with Mary yesterday.

4. I met Mary by chance, and I went shopping with her.

5. Things went rapidly from bad to worse.

6. How far is it from here to the bus stop?

7. I haven't seen her since then.

8. My brother used my computer without asking for my permission.

9. I'm looking forward to seeing you.

10. They did nothing but play cards all day.

11. I would rather stay at home than go out.

12. The future of this planet depends on whether we can protect the environment.

13. Men differ from animals in that they can use fire.

1.2 position of Prepositions

14. Who(m) are you going with?
=> With whom are you going?

15. What are you talking about?

16. This is the river which I used to swim in.
=> This is the river in which I used to swim.

17. The young lady whom Mom is talking to is our music teacher.
=> The young lady to whom Mom is talking is our music teacher.

18. He has many friends to rely on.

19. She had something particular to write about.

20. His success is looked forward to by all of us.

21. The baby has to be taken care of.
=> We have to take care of the baby.

1.3 group prepositions

22. We must stay indoors all day because of the storm.

23. Thanks to your advice, I was able to win the game.

24. He sent his brother instead of going himself.

25. He saved the child at the risk of his life.

26. We express our thoughts by means of words.

27. I did my best with a view to pleasing my father.

1.4 double prepositions

28. He was chosen from among the volunteers.

29. She took a box from under the counter.

1.5 common usage of Prepositions

30. in 1988,in August,in spring.

31. on Sunday,on the morning of October 10.

32. at nine o'clock,at dawn,at sunset,at midnight.

33. I'm going to work till seven tonight.

34. I'll finish the work by noon.

35. I began to work before eight this morning.

36. The work should take us from four to five hours.

37. He said the floods were the worst since 1968.

38. He came home after a few hours.

39. I have never seen snow in my life.

40. He will be back within a week.

41. I have learned English for five years.

42. I worked at the shop during the holidays.

43. I had to work through the night.

44. They are taking a stroll in the park.

45. The players are practicing on the field.

46. He waited for the girl at the door.

47. They are leaving for New York tomorrow.

48. The dog went to the boy.

49. The dog went toward the boy.

50. We walked along the river.

51. We swam across the river.

52. We walked through the park.

53. She sat by the window.

54. I sat beside her.

55. He lives near my house.

56. At the party, there were several girls beside Kelly.

57. At the party, there were several girls besides Kelly.

58. At the party, there were several girls except Kelly.

59. Peter sat between Jane and me.

60. He disappeared among the people in the crowd.

61. The earth moves around the sun.

62. He glanced about and saw him in conversation with someone.

63. The children sat around the old man.
=> The children sat about the old man.

64. He walked in the room.

65. He walked into the room.

66. He walked out of the room.

67. The cat jumped onto the TV set.

68. He switched on the light.

69. He switched off the light.

70. "B" comes before "C" in the alphabet.

71. We met in front of the school.

72. I hate driving behind a bus.

73. Let's have a game of tennis after school.

74. There is a fly on the ceiling.

75. A plane is flying above the mountain.

76. The sun is shining over our heads.
=> The sun is shining above our heads.

77. A cat is sleeping under the table.

78. There is a waterfall above(below) the bridge.

79. He must be well over 50 years old.

­čîč80. We talked over a cup of coffee.

81. Your score is above average.

82. I was disappointed at his failure.

83. The town is famous for its hot springs.

84. The town is famous as a hot-spring resort.

85. He died of cancer.

86. In some countries many people die from poverty.

87. He was trembling with cold.

88. He became ill through overwork.

89. They surrendered out of fear of being killed.

90. Because of the rain, the game was put off.
=> Owning to the rain, the game was put off.

91. He was very tired from his trip.

92. He is tired of his monotonous life.

93. The politicians are campaigning for the coming election.

94. Nobody trusts him after the way he lied.

95. Flour is made into bread.

96. Bread is made from flour.

97. This salad is made of lettuce, tomatoes and cucumber.

98. I made my bicycle out of four old ones.

99. He was frozen to death.

100. He goes to school by bus.

101. I watched the baseball game on televison.

102. Please write it down with a pencial.

103. The book is written in easy English.

104. He got his job through a friend.

105. America was discovered by Columbus.

106. She left without saying goodbye.

107. I have no doubt about his honesty.

108. He gave a lecture on agriculture.

109. This is the story of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.

110. There is something wrong with my bicycle.

111. He is taller than I by three inches.

112. They sell eggs by the dozen.

113. The boy is tall for his age.

114. The car was running at full speed.

115. He looked at me in surprise.

116. The lived like brothers.

117. He looked at his bank balance with satisfaction.

118. To our delight, he passed the examination.

119. She stood there with her hair waving in the breeze.

120. He is independent of his parents.

121. Some people cannot distinguish one color from another.

122. A button is off your coat.

123. What you say seems to be beside the point.

1.6 prepositions combined with adjectives and verbs

124. I am anxious about my son's safety.

125. I am anxious for fame.

126. I called on my uncle yesterday.

127. I called at his house yesterday.

128. He got to New York.

129. He got on the bus.

130. Get off the train at the next station.

131. I hear from her every month.
=> I get a letter from her every month.

132. I have never heard of such a thing.

133. I am waiting for his answer.

134. She did not like to wait on her husband.

135. We have to look into the cause.

136. What are you looking for?

137. She looked after the children.

138. He ran to catch up with his friend.

139. I am looking forward to the summer vacation.

140. Don't speak ill of others behind their backs.

141. He cannot get along with his boss.

142. Let's make up for lost time.

143. Cars took the place of horses.

144. Please take good care of yourself.

145. He paid no attention to my advice.

146. Try to make good use of your time.

147. She asked her mother for money.

148. I thanked my uncle for the present.

149. She spends too much money on clothes.

150. Can you tell a sheep from a goat?

151. I took hime for his brother.

152. He informed them of his mother's death.
=> He informed them about his mother's death.

153. They regard him as a fool.

2, Review of knowledge points (corresponding example sentence number)

Prepositions can be combined with nouns or noun equivalents to become adjective phrases or adverb phrases.
Besides monosyllabic phrases, there are group prepositions with more than two words.

on the desk Identity: prepositional phrase
 Task 1:Modifier NOUN  -> Adjective phrase;
Task 2:Means "place" -> Adverb phrase.

2.1 subject of Prepositions

The receiver of Prepositions{
	(1)Noun, pronoun
	(2)adjective
	(3)adverb
	(4)Gerund
	(5)infinitive
	(6)clause
}

to{
	(1)Infinitive to´╝Ť+ V
	I like to listen to music.

	(2)Prepositional to: + Ving
	I'm looking forward to seeing you.
}

ask for one's permission	Ask sb's permission

clause{
	noun clause{
		that
		whether/if
		Interrogative words
	}
	Adjective Clauses 
	adverbial clause
}

2.2 position of Prepositions

Position of Prepositions{
	(1)When the subject word is a interrogative word
	(2)When the receiver is a relational clause
	(3)When there are infinitives in prepositions and acceptors
	(4)Passive voice
}

Who are you going with?
Who are you going with?
=> Whom are you going with?
=> With whom are you going?

Active 1, 2, 3; Passive 3, 2, 1.
All of us look forward to his success.

2.3 group prepositions

There are more than two words combined to act as a preposition, that is, group preposition.

according to 			according to´Ż×
owing to 				because´Ż×
because of 				because´Ż×
due to 					because´Ż×
as for 					as for´Ż×
as to 					about´Ż×
thanks to 				Fortunately´Ż×
but for 				If not´Ż×Words
with for 				No matter´Ż×
instead of 				replace´Ż×

at the risk of 			Risk´Ż×Danger of
in case of 				In case´Ż×
in front of 			stay´Ż×front
in spite of 			although´Ż×
by mean of 				adopt´Ż×
in addition to 			except´Ż×outside
on account of 			because´Ż×
with a view to 			in order to´Ż×
for the purpose of 		in order to´Ż×Purpose of
for the sake of 		because´Ż×

2.4 double prepositions

When two prepositions are used together, they are double prepositions.

from...in	from among
 from...under	from under

2.5 common usage of Prepositions

Common usage of Prepositions{
	(1)Table time				in,on,at
	(2)Table location				in,on,at
	(3)Table causes and reasons			
	(4)Table purpose and results			
	(5)Table means, props, behavior, etc	
	(6)Table Association and relationship
	(7)Table degree, unit and proportion
	(8)Sample state
	(9)Table removal, distinction and separation
}

Many people in English can distinguish between two, three or more situations.
between/among
both/all
either/any

a whole year all the year round

tell A from B
distinguish A from B
 Distinguish right from wrong: tell right from wrong

2.6 prepositions combined with adjectives and verbs

Prepositions combined with adjectives and verbs{
	(1)be + adjective + Preposition 
	(2)verb + Preposition
	(3)verb + adverb + Preposition 
	(4)verb + noun + Preposition
	(5)verb + object + Preposition
}

be + adjective + Prepositions can be remembered directly as phrases.
be afraid of 			fear
be fond of 				like
be full of 				full
be proud of 			with´Ż×Be proud of
be sure of 				Convinced
be famous for 			with´Ż×famous
be late for 			late
be ready for 			be ready
be sorry for 			i 'm sorry
be good at 				be good at
by absent from 			absent
be different from 		Different
be similar to 			be similar
be interested in 		be interested

3, Chinese translation of example sentences (Reference)

  1. The book on the table is mine.

  2. Put the book on the table.

3.1 subject of Prepositions

  1. I went shopping with Mary yesterday.

  2. I happened to meet Mary and went shopping with her.

  3. Things got worse quickly.

  4. How far is it from here to the bus stop?

  5. I haven't seen her since then.

  6. My brother used my computer without my permission.

  7. I'm looking forward to seeing you.

  8. They only play cards all day.

  9. I'd rather stay at home than go out.

  10. The future of the planet depends on whether we can protect the environment.

  11. The difference between humans and animals is that humans use fire.

3.2 position of Prepositions

  1. Who are you going with?

  2. What are you talking about?

  3. This is the river where I used to swim.

  4. The young woman who is chatting with her mother is our music teacher.

  5. He has many reliable friends.

  6. She has something special to write.

  7. His success is expected by all of us.

  8. The baby must be taken care of.

3.3 group prepositions

  1. Because of the storm, we must stay indoors all day.

  2. Thanks to your advice, I can win the game.

  3. Instead of going himself, he sent his brother instead.

  4. He saved the child at the risk of his own life.

  5. We express our thoughts in words.

  6. I tried my best to make my father happy.

3.4 double prepositions

  1. He was selected from the group of volunteers.

  2. She took out a box from under the counter.

3.5 common usage of Prepositions

  1. In 1988, in August, in spring.

  2. On Sunday, in the morning of October 10.

  3. At nine o'clock, at dawn, at sunset, at midnight.

  4. I'm going to work until seven tonight.

  5. I'll finish my work before noon.

  6. I started working before eight this morning.

  7. The work is estimated to take us four or five hours.

  8. He said it was the worst flood since 1968.

  9. He will go home in a few hours.

  10. I've never seen snow in my life.

  11. He will be back in a week.

  12. I have studied English for five years.

  13. I work in this shop during the holidays.

  14. I have to work all night.

  15. They are walking in the park.

  16. The players are practicing on the field.

  17. He waited for the girl at the door.

  18. They will leave for New York tomorrow.

  19. The dog went to the boy.

  20. The dog walked in the direction of the boy.

  21. We walked along the river.

  22. We swam across the river.

  23. We crossed the park.

  24. She sat by the window.

  25. I sat next to her.

  26. He lives near my house.

  27. At the party, there were some girls next to Kelly.

  28. At the party, there were several girls besides Kelly.

  29. At the party, several girls came except Kelly.

  30. Peter sits between Jane and me.

  31. He disappeared into the crowd.

  32. The earth goes round the sun.

  33. He looked around and saw him talking to a man.

  34. The children sat around the old man.

  35. He is walking in the room.

  36. He went into the room.

  37. He went out of the room.

  38. The cat jumped onto the TV.

  39. He turned on the light.

  40. He turned off the light.

  41. The letter B precedes C.

  42. We met in front of the school.

  43. I hate following the bus when driving.

  44. Let's have a tennis match after school.

  45. There is a fly on the ceiling.

  46. The plane flew over the mountain.

  47. The sun shines above us.

  48. The cat is sleeping under the table.

  49. There is a waterfall upstream (downstream) of the bridge.

  50. He must be in his fifties.

­čîč 80. We chatted over coffee.

  1. Your score is above average.

  2. I was disappointed at his failure.

  3. The town is famous for its hot springs.

  4. The town is famous as a holy land of hot springs.

  5. He died of cancer.

  6. In some countries, many people die from poverty.

  7. He trembled with cold.

  8. He fell ill from overwork.

  9. They surrendered for fear of being killed.

  10. The match was postponed because of the rain.

  11. He felt very tired after his trip.

  12. He is tired of his monotonous life.

  13. Politicians are campaigning for the upcoming election.

  14. No one believed him because he lied like that.

  15. Flour makes bread.

  16. Bread is made of flour.

  17. This salad is made of lettuce, tomato and cucumber.

  18. I use four old bicycles to form my bicycle.

  19. He froze to death. (not really dead)

  20. He goes to school by bus.

  21. I saw the baseball game on TV.

  22. Please write it down in pencil.

  23. The book is written in simple English.

  24. He found the job through his friends.

  25. Columbus discovered the American continent.

  26. She left without saying goodbye.

  27. I don't doubt his integrity.

  28. He gave a speech on the subject of farm.

  29. This is a story about Snow White and the seven dwarfs.

  30. There is something wrong with my bike.

  31. He is three inches taller than me.

  32. Eggs are sold in whole dozen.

  33. The boy is tall for his age.

  34. The car advanced at full speed.

  35. He looked at me in surprise.

  36. They live like brothers.

  37. He looked at the balance of his bank with satisfaction.

  38. We are glad that he passed the exam.

  39. She stood there with her hair flying in the wind.

  40. He is independent from his parents.

  41. Some people can't distinguish colors.

  42. A button has fallen off your coat.

  43. What you said seems beside the point.

3.6 prepositions combined with adjectives and verbs

  1. I'm worried about my son's safety.

  2. I want to be famous.

  3. I visited my uncle yesterday.

  4. I visited his house yesterday.

  5. He arrived in New York.

  6. He got on the bus.

  7. Get off at the next railway station.

  8. I hear from her every month.

  9. I've never heard of such a thing.

  10. I'm waiting for his answer.

  11. She doesn't like to serve her husband.

  12. We must investigate the cause.

  13. What are you looking for?

  14. She looks after the children.

  15. He ran to catch up with his friend.

  16. I look forward to this summer vacation.

  17. Don't speak ill of others behind their backs.

  18. He can't get on well with his boss.

  19. Let's make up for the lost time.

  20. Cars replace horses.

  21. Please take good care of yourself.

  22. He didn't heed my advice.

  23. Try to make good use of your time.

  24. She asked her mother for money.

  25. I thank my uncle for the present.

  26. She spends too much money on clothes.

  27. Can you tell the difference between sheep and goats?

  28. I took him for his brother.

  29. He informed them of his mother's death.

  30. They thought he was a fool.

Tags: English

Posted on Sun, 31 Oct 2021 11:09:41 -0400 by jernhenrik