HashMap source code reading

Comments in HashMap class

/**
 * Hash table based implementation of the <tt>Map</tt> interface.  This
 * implementation provides all of the optional map operations, and permits
 * <tt>null</tt> values and the <tt>null</tt> key.  (The <tt>HashMap</tt>
 * class is roughly equivalent to <tt>Hashtable</tt>, except that it is
 * unsynchronized and permits nulls.)  This class makes no guarantees as to
 * the order of the map; in particular, it does not guarantee that the order
 * will remain constant over time.
 *
 * <p>This implementation provides constant-time performance for the basic
 * operations (<tt>get</tt> and <tt>put</tt>), assuming the hash function
 * disperses the elements properly among the buckets.  Iteration over
 * collection views requires time proportional to the "capacity" of the
 * <tt>HashMap</tt> instance (the number of buckets) plus its size (the number
 * of key-value mappings).  Thus, it's very important not to set the initial
 * capacity too high (or the load factor too low) if iteration performance is
 * important.
 *
 * <p>An instance of <tt>HashMap</tt> has two parameters that affect its
 * performance: <i>initial capacity</i> and <i>load factor</i>.  The
 * <i>capacity</i> is the number of buckets in the hash table, and the initial
 * capacity is simply the capacity at the time the hash table is created.  The
 * <i>load factor</i> is a measure of how full the hash table is allowed to
 * get before its capacity is automatically increased.  When the number of
 * entries in the hash table exceeds the product of the load factor and the
 * current capacity, the hash table is <i>rehashed</i> (that is, internal data
 * structures are rebuilt) so that the hash table has approximately twice the
 * number of buckets.
 *
 * <p>As a general rule, the default load factor (.75) offers a good
 * tradeoff between time and space costs.  Higher values decrease the
 * space overhead but increase the lookup cost (reflected in most of
 * the operations of the <tt>HashMap</tt> class, including
 * <tt>get</tt> and <tt>put</tt>).  The expected number of entries in
 * the map and its load factor should be taken into account when
 * setting its initial capacity, so as to minimize the number of
 * rehash operations.  If the initial capacity is greater than the
 * maximum number of entries divided by the load factor, no rehash
 * operations will ever occur.
 *
 * <p>If many mappings are to be stored in a <tt>HashMap</tt>
 * instance, creating it with a sufficiently large capacity will allow
 * the mappings to be stored more efficiently than letting it perform
 * automatic rehashing as needed to grow the table.  Note that using
 * many keys with the same {@code hashCode()} is a sure way to slow
 * down performance of any hash table. To ameliorate impact, when keys
 * are {@link Comparable}, this class may use comparison order among
 * keys to help break ties.
 *
 * <p><strong>Note that this implementation is not synchronized.</strong>
 * If multiple threads access a hash map concurrently, and at least one of
 * the threads modifies the map structurally, it <i>must</i> be
 * synchronized externally.  (A structural modification is any operation
 * that adds or deletes one or more mappings; merely changing the value
 * associated with a key that an instance already contains is not a
 * structural modification.)  This is typically accomplished by
 * synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the map.
 *
 * If no such object exists, the map should be "wrapped" using the
 * {@link Collections#synchronizedMap Collections.synchronizedMap}
 * method.  This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental
 * unsynchronized access to the map:<pre>
 *   Map m = Collections.synchronizedMap(new HashMap(...));</pre>
 *
 * <p>The iterators returned by all of this class's "collection view methods"
 * are <i>fail-fast</i>: if the map is structurally modified at any time after
 * the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own
 * <tt>remove</tt> method, the iterator will throw a
 * {@link ConcurrentModificationException}.  Thus, in the face of concurrent
 * modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking
 * arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the
 * future.
 *
 * <p>Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed
 * as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the
 * presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification.  Fail-fast iterators
 * throw <tt>ConcurrentModificationException</tt> on a best-effort basis.
 * Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this
 * exception for its correctness: <i>the fail-fast behavior of iterators
 * should be used only to detect bugs.</i>
 *
 * <p>This class is a member of the
 * <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
 * Java Collections Framework</a>.
 *
 * @param <K> the type of keys maintained by this map
 * @param <V> the type of mapped values
 *
 * @author  Doug Lea
 * @author  Josh Bloch
 * @author  Arthur van Hoff
 * @author  Neal Gafter
 * @see     Object#hashCode()
 * @see     Collection
 * @see     Map
 * @see     TreeMap
 * @see     Hashtable
 * @since   1.2
 */

The HashMap described in the first paragraph of the HashMap annotation implements the Map interface and allows empty values and empty key s. It is worth noting that The HashMap class is roughly equivalent to Hashtable, except that it is unsynchronized and permits nulls

Hash table based implementation of the Map interface. This implementation provides all of the optional map operations, and permits null values and the null key. (The HashMap class is roughly equivalent to Hashtable, except that it is unsynchronized and permits nulls.) This class makes no guarantees as to the order of the map; in particular, it does not guarantee that the order will remain constant over time.

The second paragraph explains the advantages of HashMap, which can be completed in constant time complexity (get,put), and the time complexity required to traverse the set is directly proportional to the size of HashMap array + K-V quantity. It is officially suggested that if there are requirements for iterative performance, please do not set the initial capacity too high, resulting in too low load factor

This implementation provides constant-time performance for the basic operations (get and put), assuming the hash function disperses the elements properly among the buckets. Iteration over collection views requires time proportional to the "capacity" of the HashMap instance (the number of buckets) plus its size (the number of key-value mappings). Thus, it's very important not to set the initial capacity too high (or the load factor too low) if iteration performance is important.

The third paragraph introduces two parameters that affect the performance of HashMap. Initial capacity default_ INITIAL_ CAPACITY = 1 << 4; // Aka 16 and load factor DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f; When the number of elements exceeds the load factor * current capacity, HashMap will be rehashed (internal data structure reconstruction), and then HashMap will obtain about twice the capacity

An instance of HashMap has two parameters that affect its performance: initial capacity and load factor. The capacity is the number of buckets in the hash table, and the initial capacity is simply the capacity at the time the hash table is created. The load factor is a measure of how full the hash table is allowed to get before its capacity is automatically increased. When the number of entries in the hash table exceeds the product of the load factor and the current capacity, the hash table is rehashed (that is, internal data structures are rebuilt) so that the hash table has approximately twice the number of buckets.

The fourth paragraph introduces that the initial load factor is 0.75, which is a good balance between time and space costs

As a general rule, the default load factor (.75) offers a good tradeoff between time and space costs. Higher values decrease the space overhead but increase the lookup cost (reflected in most of the operations of the HashMap class, including get and put). The expected number of entries in the map and its load factor should be taken into account when setting its initial capacity, so as to minimize the number of rehash operations. If the initial capacity is greater than the maximum number of entries divided by the load factor, no rehash operations will ever occur.

The fifth paragraph reminds us that if there are many mappings that need to be saved, it is better to expand the initial capacity rather than let it expand automatically. Finally, it explains that when multiple keys have the same hashCode, the performance will deteriorate. The solution is to build a sequential relationship when the key is Comparable

If many mappings are to be stored in a HashMap instance, creating it with a sufficiently large capacity will allow the mappings to be stored more efficiently than letting it perform automatic rehashing as needed to grow the table. Note that using many keys with the same hashCode() is a sure way to slow down performance of any hash table. To ameliorate impact, when keys are Comparable, this class may use comparison order among keys to help break ties.

The sixth paragraph explains that HashMap is not thread safe, and tells us that if multiple threads need to modify HashMap, they need to synchronize externally. For example, collections. Cyncronizedmap() is used to build thread safe HashMap. This method will throw ConcurrentModificationException

Note that this implementation is not synchronized. If multiple threads access a hash map concurrently, and at least one of the threads modifies the map structurally, it must be synchronized externally. (A structural modification is any operation that adds or deletes one or more mappings; merely changing the value associated with a key that an instance already contains is not a structural modification.) This is typically accomplished by synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the map. If no such object exists, the map should be "wrapped" using the Collections.synchronizedMap method. This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental unsynchronized access to the map:
     Map m = Collections.synchronizedMap(new HashMap(...));
The iterators returned by all of this class's "collection view methods" are fail-fast: if the map is structurally modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own remove method, the iterator will throw a ConcurrentModificationException. Thus, in the face of concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.

The last paragraph explains that the previous practice can not be fully guaranteed. Only for detect bugs

Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators throw ConcurrentModificationException on a best-effort basis. Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this exception for its correctness: the fail-fast behavior of iterators should be used only to detect bugs.

HashMap implementation Note

/*
* Implementation notes.
*
* This map usually acts as a binned (bucketed) hash table, but
* when bins get too large, they are transformed into bins of
* TreeNodes, each structured similarly to those in
* java.util.TreeMap. Most methods try to use normal bins, but
* relay to TreeNode methods when applicable (simply by checking
* instanceof a node).  Bins of TreeNodes may be traversed and
* used like any others, but additionally support faster lookup
* when overpopulated. However, since the vast majority of bins in
* normal use are not overpopulated, checking for existence of
* tree bins may be delayed in the course of table methods.
*
* Tree bins (i.e., bins whose elements are all TreeNodes) are
* ordered primarily by hashCode, but in the case of ties, if two
* elements are of the same "class C implements Comparable<C>",
* type then their compareTo method is used for ordering. (We
* conservatively check generic types via reflection to validate
* this -- see method comparableClassFor).  The added complexity
* of tree bins is worthwhile in providing worst-case O(log n)
* operations when keys either have distinct hashes or are 
* orderable, Thus, performance degrades gracefully under
* accidental or malicious usages in which hashCode() methods
* return values that are poorly distributed, as well as those in
* which many keys share a hashCode, so long as they are also
* Comparable. (If neither of these apply, we may waste about a
* factor of two in time and space compared to taking no
* precautions. But the only known cases stem from poor user
* programming practices that are already so slow that this makes
*little difference.)
*
* Because TreeNodes are about twice the size of regular nodes, we
* use them only when bins contain enough nodes to warrant use
* (see TREEIFY_THRESHOLD). And when they become too small (due to 
* removal or resizing) they are converted back to plain bins.  In
* usages with well-distributed user hashCodes, tree bins are
* rarely used.  Ideally, under random hashCodes, the frequency of
* nodes in bins follows a Poisson distribution
* (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisson_distribution) with a
* parameter of about 0.5 on average for the default resizing
* threshold of 0.75, although with a large variance because of
* resizing granularity. Ignoring variance, the expected
* occurrences of list size k are (exp(-0.5) * pow(0.5, k) /
* factorial(k)). The first values are:
*
* 0:    0.60653066
* 1:    0.30326533
* 2:    0.07581633
* 3:    0.01263606
* 4:    0.00157952
* 5:    0.00015795
* 6:    0.00001316
* 7:    0.00000094
* 8:    0.00000006
* more: less than 1 in ten million
*
* The root of a tree bin is normally its first node.  However,
* sometimes (currently only upon Iterator.remove), the root might
* be elsewhere, but can be recovered following parent links
* (method TreeNode.root()).
*
* All applicable internal methods accept a hash code as an
* argument (as normally supplied from a public method), allowing
* them to call each other without recomputing user hashCodes.
* Most internal methods also accept a "tab" argument, that is
* normally the current table, but may be a new or old one when
* resizing or converting.
*
* When bin lists are treeified, split, or untreeified, we keep
* them in the same relative access/traversal order (i.e., field
* Node.next) to better preserve locality, and to slightly
* simplify handling of splits and traversals that invoke
* iterator.remove. When using comparators on insertion, to keep a
* total ordering (or as close as is required here) across
* rebalancings, we compare classes and identityHashCodes as
* tie-breakers.
*
* The use and transitions among plain vs tree modes is
* complicated by the existence of subclass LinkedHashMap. See
* below for hook methods defined to be invoked upon insertion,
* removal and access that allow LinkedHashMap internals to
* otherwise remain independent of these mechanics. (This also
* requires that a map instance be passed to some utility methods
* that may create new nodes.)
*
* The concurrent-programming-like SSA-based coding style helps
* avoid aliasing errors amid all of the twisty pointer operations.
*/

The first paragraph talks about when the Map is a bound hash table, but when the bins are too large, it will be converted to TreeNodes

     * This map usually acts as a binned (bucketed) hash table, but
     * when bins get too large, they are transformed into bins of
     * TreeNodes, each structured similarly to those in
     * java.util.TreeMap. Most methods try to use normal bins, but
     * relay to TreeNode methods when applicable (simply by checking
     * instanceof a node).  Bins of TreeNodes may be traversed and
     * used like any others, but additionally support faster lookup
     * when overpopulated. However, since the vast majority of bins in
     * normal use are not overpopulated, checking for existence of
     * tree bins may be delayed in the course of table methods.

In the second paragraph, the same HashCode will be sorted through Comparable

     * Tree bins (i.e., bins whose elements are all TreeNodes) are
     * ordered primarily by hashCode, but in the case of ties, if two
     * elements are of the same "class C implements Comparable<C>",
     * type then their compareTo method is used for ordering. (We
     * conservatively check generic types via reflection to validate
     * this -- see method comparableClassFor).  The added complexity
     * of tree bins is worthwhile in providing worst-case O(log n)
     * operations when keys either have distinct hashes or are
     * orderable, Thus, performance degrades gracefully under
     * accidental or malicious usages in which hashCode() methods
     * return values that are poorly distributed, as well as those in
     * which many keys share a hashCode, so long as they are also
     * Comparable. (If neither of these apply, we may waste about a
     * factor of two in time and space compared to taking no
     * precautions. But the only known cases stem from poor user
     * programming practices that are already so slow that this makes
     * little difference.)

The third paragraph talks about when to convert to a tree and define tree_ THRESHOLD

     * Because TreeNodes are about twice the size of regular nodes, we
     * use them only when bins contain enough nodes to warrant use
     * (see TREEIFY_THRESHOLD). And when they become too small (due to
     * removal or resizing) they are converted back to plain bins.  In
     * usages with well-distributed user hashCodes, tree bins are
     * rarely used.  Ideally, under random hashCodes, the frequency of
     * nodes in bins follows a Poisson distribution
     * (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisson_distribution) with a
     * parameter of about 0.5 on average for the default resizing
     * threshold of 0.75, although with a large variance because of
     * resizing granularity. Ignoring variance, the expected
     * occurrences of list size k are (exp(-0.5) * pow(0.5, k) /
     * factorial(k)). The first values are:

HashMap

Reading the source code is mainly to understand the underlying principle, which will be analyzed from the common methods in HashMap.

constructor

It is worth noting that no matter how much initial capacity you pass in, it will be adjusted to a multiple of 2 by the tableSizeFor function

public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor);
public HashMap(int initialCapacity);
public HashMap();

Storage mode

As the comments above the class say, the underlying HashMap uses a Node array, which is the Node that holds the key value mapping relationship. Calculate the storage location through hashcode. When the storage is the same, build a linked list. When the linked list is greater than the default tree_ Threshold turns the linked list into a red black tree. The following explains in detail how to store data when pressing in through the Put method.

Put() method

The bottom layer of the put method calls putVal. The source code of the putVal method is as follows:

 /**
     * Implements Map.put and related methods.
     *
     * @param hash hash for key
     * @param key the key
     * @param value the value to put
     * @param onlyIfAbsent if true, don't change existing value
     * @param evict if false, the table is in creation mode.
     * @return previous value, or null if none
     */
    final V putVal(int hash, K key, V value, boolean onlyIfAbsent,
                   boolean evict) {
        Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> p; int n, i;
        if ((tab = table) == null || (n = tab.length) == 0)
            n = (tab = resize()).length;
        if ((p = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) == null)
            tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
        else {
            Node<K,V> e; K k;
            if (p.hash == hash &&
                ((k = p.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                e = p;
            else if (p instanceof TreeNode)
                e = ((TreeNode<K,V>)p).putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, value);
            else {
                for (int binCount = 0; ; ++binCount) {
                    if ((e = p.next) == null) {
                        p.next = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
                        if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1) // -1 for 1st
                            treeifyBin(tab, hash);
                        break;
                    }
                    if (e.hash == hash &&
                        ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                        break;
                    p = e;
                }
            }
            if (e != null) { // existing mapping for key
                V oldValue = e.value;
                if (!onlyIfAbsent || oldValue == null)
                    e.value = value;
                afterNodeAccess(e);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        ++modCount;
        if (++size > threshold)
            resize();
        afterNodeInsertion(evict);
        return null;
    }

Source code analysis:

Node < K, V > tab: saves the mapping relationship in the current HashMap, n saves the tab length, i: used to save the index position

  1. Judge whether the tab table is empty. If it is empty, resize()
  2. Calculate the index position through hashcode to judge whether the position is empty. If it is empty, assign a value and skip 7
  3. If it is not empty, continue to judge whether there are equal, that is, there are duplicate keys. If there are duplicate keys, overwrite them, skip 6 and skip 4
  4. If it does not exist, judge whether it is a TreeNode. If yes, add a node to the red black tree. Skip 6. Otherwise, skip 5
  5. Find the tail of the circular linked list and insert it. If the insertion causes the length of the linked list to be greater than tree_ Threshold is converted to red black tree. Jump 6
  6. If yes, it returns oldValue. End
  7. A new position in the table is occupied. When the size exceeds the threshold, resize() returns null

The flow chart is as follows:

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resize() method

Before, the byte interviewer asked how to expand the HashMap bottom layer and what to do with the original data after expansion. Now he plans to take a detailed look at the resize() code. The second sentence of the comment is written. Because it is a quadratic power expansion, the elements in each bin must stay in the same index, or move to a new table for a quadratic offset

/**
* Initializes or doubles table size.  If null, allocates in
* accord with initial capacity target held in field threshold.
* Otherwise, because we are using power-of-two expansion, the
* elements from each bin must either stay at same index, or move
* with a power of two offset in the new table.
*
* @return the table
*/
final Node<K,V>[] resize() {
    Node<K,V>[] oldTab = table;
    int oldCap = (oldTab == null) ? 0 : oldTab.length;
    int oldThr = threshold;
    int newCap, newThr = 0;
    if (oldCap > 0) {
        if (oldCap >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
            threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            return oldTab;
        }
        else if ((newCap = oldCap << 1) < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY &&
                 oldCap >= DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY)
            newThr = oldThr << 1; // double threshold
    }
    else if (oldThr > 0) // initial capacity was placed in threshold
        newCap = oldThr;
    else {               // zero initial threshold signifies using defaults
        newCap = DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY;
        newThr = (int)(DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR * DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY);
    }
    if (newThr == 0) {
        float ft = (float)newCap * loadFactor;
        newThr = (newCap < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY && ft < (float)MAXIMUM_CAPACITY ?
                  (int)ft : Integer.MAX_VALUE);
    }
    threshold = newThr;
    @SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked"})
    Node<K,V>[] newTab = (Node<K,V>[])new Node[newCap];
    table = newTab;
    if (oldTab != null) {
        for (int j = 0; j < oldCap; ++j) {
            Node<K,V> e;
            if ((e = oldTab[j]) != null) {
                oldTab[j] = null;
                if (e.next == null)
                    newTab[e.hash & (newCap - 1)] = e;
                else if (e instanceof TreeNode)
                    ((TreeNode<K,V>)e).split(this, newTab, j, oldCap);
                else { // preserve order
                    Node<K,V> loHead = null, loTail = null;
                    Node<K,V> hiHead = null, hiTail = null;
                    Node<K,V> next;
                    do {
                        next = e.next;
                        if ((e.hash & oldCap) == 0) {
                            if (loTail == null)
                                loHead = e;
                            else
                                loTail.next = e;
                            loTail = e;
                        }
                        else {
                            if (hiTail == null)
                                hiHead = e;
                            else
                                hiTail.next = e;
                            hiTail = e;
                        }
                    } while ((e = next) != null);
                    if (loTail != null) {
                        loTail.next = null;
                        newTab[j] = loHead;
                    }
                    if (hiTail != null) {
                        hiTail.next = null;
                        newTab[j + oldCap] = hiHead;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    return newTab;
}

Source code analysis

oldTab saves the old table,

The first part is to determine the capacity of the new table by judging the threshold and capacity of the old table. The corresponding relationship is shown in the table below

conditionnewCapnewThrdesc
o l d C a p > M a x oldCap>Max oldCap>MaxunchangedInteger,Max...Return to old table
Silence recognize ≤ o l d C a p < M a x / 2 Default \ Leq oldcap < max / 2 Default ≤ oldcap < max / 2DoubleDouble
o l d C a p ≤ Silence recognize oldCap\leq default oldCap ≤ defaultDoubleunchanged
o l d C a p < 0 & & o l d T h r > 0 oldCap<0\&\&oldThr>0 oldCap<0&&oldThr>0oldThrunchanged
otherdefaultdefault

The latter part of the code is the data transfer process in oldTab after capacity expansion. It is also the core code. It is mainly divided into three cases: 1. There is a node in the corresponding position; 2. The corresponding position is a linked list; 3. The corresponding position is red black tree

Single node
Re calculate the position through the hash and re place

Linked list
Since the size of the HashMap is doubled every time, for the linked list, traverse the hash of the current element of the linked list and the current capacity on the list to determine whether the highest bit is the value 1. If it is 1, it will be put into the new table. Otherwise, it will be put into the old table and retain its original correspondence

Tree condition
The TreeNode.split method is called. The source code is as follows:
The first paragraph of the note says: divide the tree bin into lower bins and upper tree bins. Or untreeify the tree with too few nodes. This method can only be called by resize
The principle is also whether the highest bit of the hash value is one and divided into two parts

/**
* Splits nodes in a tree bin into lower and upper tree bins,
* or untreeifies if now too small. Called only from resize;
* see above discussion about split bits and indices.
*
* @param map the map
* @param tab the table for recording bin heads
* @param index the index of the table being split
* @param bit the bit of hash to split on
*/
final void split(HashMap<K,V> map, Node<K,V>[] tab, int index, int bit) {
    TreeNode<K,V> b = this;
    // Relink into lo and hi lists, preserving order
    TreeNode<K,V> loHead = null, loTail = null;
    TreeNode<K,V> hiHead = null, hiTail = null;
    int lc = 0, hc = 0;
    for (TreeNode<K,V> e = b, next; e != null; e = next) {
        next = (TreeNode<K,V>)e.next;
        e.next = null;
        if ((e.hash & bit) == 0) {
            if ((e.prev = loTail) == null)
                loHead = e;
            else
                loTail.next = e;
            loTail = e;
            ++lc;
        }
        else {
            if ((e.prev = hiTail) == null)
                hiHead = e;
            else
                hiTail.next = e;
            hiTail = e;
            ++hc;
        }
    }

    if (loHead != null) {
        if (lc <= UNTREEIFY_THRESHOLD)
            tab[index] = loHead.untreeify(map);
        else {
            tab[index] = loHead;
            if (hiHead != null) // (else is already treeified)
                loHead.treeify(tab);
        }
    }
    if (hiHead != null) {
        if (hc <= UNTREEIFY_THRESHOLD)
            tab[index + bit] = hiHead.untreeify(map);
        else {
            tab[index + bit] = hiHead;
            if (loHead != null)
                hiHead.treeify(tab);
        }
    }
}

Tags: Java

Posted on Sun, 19 Sep 2021 17:19:15 -0400 by aswini_1978