object-oriented programming


1, Change the direction of this in the function

1. call()

2. apply()

3. bind() ⭐

4. Summary of three methods

2, Closure  

3, Recursion  

4, let and const in ES6  

1. let keyword  

2. const keyword  

3. Differences among VaR, let and const  

5, ES6 deconstruction assignment  

  1. Array deconstruction

  2. Object deconstruction

  6, ES6 arrow function

  7, Remaining parameters and extension operators

  1. Remaining parameters   (...args)

  two   Extension operator (expand syntax)  

8, Array instance method   

 1. Array.from()

 2. find()

 3. findIndex()

 4. includes() 

9, set data structure  

 1. startsWith(),endsWith()

 2. repeat()

  3. Set data deconstruction  

1, Change the direction of this in the function

Before talking about the method, let's first understand several situations of this point.

Call modethis point
Ordinary function callwindow
constructor call The methods in the instance object prototype object also point to the instance object
Object method callThe object to which the method belongs
Event binding methodBind event object
Timer Functions window
Execute function nowwindow

These points of this are determined when we call the function. Different calling methods determine the different direction of this, which generally points to our caller

1. call()

var o = {
    name: 'andy'
function fn(a,b) {
     console.log(a + b);
fn.call(o,1,2);  // this points to object o, and the output is {name:'andy'} 3

1.call the first function that can be called   The second one can change the point of this in the function
2. The main function of call is to realize inheritance

Inheritance case code:  

function Father(uname,age,sex) {
     this.uname = uname;
     this.age = age;
     this.sex = sex;
function Son(uname,age,sex) {
 //It is equivalent to inheriting the parent class and setting its own properties
var son = new Son('Lau Andy',18,'male');
 //The print result is Andy Lau, 18 male

2. apply()

The apply() method calls a function. It is simply understood as the way to call a function, but it can change the this point of the function.   

fun.apply(thisArg, [argsArray])

thisArg: the value of this specified when the fun function runs

argsArray: the passed value must be contained in the array (pseudo array)

The return value is the return value of the function, because it is the calling function

var o = {
   name: 'andy'
function fn(arr) {
fn.apply(o,['pink']); //this points to o, and the output is {name:'andy'} pink

  Note: the main application of apply   For example, we can use apply to find the maximum / minimum value with the help of mathematical built-in objects

The code is as follows 👇  

 var arr = [1,66,3,99,4];
 var max = Math.max.apply(Math,arr); 
 //The first parameter of apply is null or points to the Math built-in object, because it is the max function called by Math, which is better
 console.log(max); //The result is 99

3. bind() ⭐

The bind() method does not call the function, but it can change the internal this point of the function  

fun.bind(thisArg, arg1,arg2,...)

thisArg: the value of this specified when the fun function runs

arg1,arg2: other parameters passed

Returns a copy of the original function modified by the specified this value and initialization parameters

var o = {
   name: 'andy'
function fn(a,b) {
var f = fn.bind(o,1,2);

  Note: if f is used to receive the copied function, the object pointed to by this can be output by calling. If it is not called, it will not be output

  The bind() method is used with the timer as follows 👇   (when the button is pressed, the button changes to non clickable state and recovers after three seconds)

 var btn1 = document.querySelector('button');
        btn1.onclick = function(){
            this.disabled = true;   //This this points to the btn button
                this.disabled = false;  //Originally, this in the timer function should point to window, but because bind is called, it points to btn
            }.bind(this),3000); //This this points to the btn object

  4. Summary of three methods


  Can change the this point inside the function


  1. call and apply will call the function and change the internal this point of the function

  2. The parameters passed by call and apply are different. The parameters passed by call are in the form of aru1,aru2.. and apply must be in the form of array [arg]

  3. bind will not call the function. You can change the internal this point of the function

  Main application scenarios:

  1. call often does inheritance

  2. apply is often related to arrays, such as realizing the maximum and minimum values with the help of mathematical objects

  3. bind does not call the function, but also wants to change the this point, such as changing the this point inside the timer

2, Closure  

A closure is a function that has access to a variable in the scope of another function

A simple understanding is that a scope can access local variables inside another function

for instance 👇  

function fn() {
  var num = 5;
  function fun() {
  fn();  //The output is 5

Obviously, fn and fun have different scopes, but fun can access local variables in fn, so fn is a closure  

The main function of closures is to extend the scope of variables. Local variables will not be destroyed until all functions have called the local variables

  Frequently asked interview questions of closures: use closures to get the index number of the current small li

var lis = document.querySelectorAll('li');
   for(var i = 0; i < lis.length;i++) {
   //Four immediate execution functions are created using the for loop
   //The immediate execution function is also called a small closure because any function in the immediate execution function can use its i variable
         lis[i].onclick = function() {

However, this method is more complex and troublesome than creating custom attributes, because this method creates multiple immediate execution functions, and each local variable i must be released after the click event. If it is not clicked, it will not be released, resulting in memory leakage.  
therefore   Closures are not necessarily good. They should be used reasonably

3, Recursion  

What is recursion?  

If a function can call itself internally, the function is a recursive function

Simple understanding: the function calls itself internally. This function is a recursive function

Recursive functions have the same effect as loops

Because recursion is prone to "stack overflow", an exit condition return must be added  

Because recursion is a little around, the blogger was dizzy several times when he started learning, so the blogger will give more examples. If you can understand them, it means that you have mastered them very well~

  ① Using recursive function to find factorial 1 * 2 of 1~n  * 3 * 4 ...n

function fn(n) {
  if(n == 1) {
  return 1;
 return n * fn(n-1);
//Suppose that n = 3 is passed in, first judge whether n is equal to 1, which is not equal to executing return n* fn(n-1);
//Therefore, the result of the first entry is return 3 * fn(3-1);
//fn(3-1) enters the function again and continues to judge that it is not equal to 1, so the return value is 2 * fn(2-1);
//fn(2-1) continue calling the function. At this time, n = 1, return 1
// Replace all fn(n-1) above with the value returned by return as: 3 * 2 * 1 = 6

  ② Using recursive function to find Fibonacci sequence (rabbit sequence) 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21

//We only need to know the first two items (n-1, n-2) of N entered by the user to calculate the sequence value corresponding to n
function fb(n) {
    if( n ===1 || n ===2) {
         return 1;
      return fb(n-1) + fb(n-2);

  ② The running steps are the same as ①. You can try to write them on the draft. If you can do both of the above, let's see how recursion traverses the data

③ Enter the id number to return the corresponding data object  

        var data = [{
            name: 'household electrical appliances',
                gname: 'Refrigerator'
                gname: 'Washing machine'
            name: 'Clothes & Accessories'
        function getID(json,id) {
            var o = {};
                if(item.id == id) {
                    o = item;
                    // return item;
                } else if (item.goods && item.goods.length > 0) {
                    o = getID(item.goods, id);
            return o;

4, let and const in ES6  

Why use ES6:
The birth of each standard means the improvement of the language and the strengthening of functions. JavaScript language itself also has some unsatisfactory places

The variable promotion feature increases the unpredictability of program runtime

The syntax is too loose. Different people may write different code to achieve the same function

1. let keyword  

  Keywords added in ES6 for declaring variables,   let declared variables are only valid at the block level

if(true) {
   let a = 10;
console.log(a)  //  a is not defined

be careful: ❗  

①   Only variables declared with let keyword have block level scope, and variables declared with var do not have block level scope  

      Benefit: prevent circular variables from becoming global variables  

for(let i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
console.log(i);   // i is not defined

② There is no variable promotion  

console.log(a);   // a is not defined
let a = 20;

③ Temporary deadband (variables with the same name defined externally have no effect on the let of the block level scope);  

var tmp = 123;
if(true) {
   tmp = 'abc';
   let tmp;  
console.log(tmp);// tmp is not defined

  let keyword interview questions 👇

      👆 var defined variables, 👇 let defined variables  

2. const keyword  

  Function: declare a constant. A constant is an amount whose value (memory address) cannot be changed

characteristic: ❗  

① With block level scope  

if(true) {
     const a = 10;
console.log(a);   // a is not defined

②   A value must be assigned when declaring a constant  

const PI;   //Missing initializer in const declaration

③   After constant assignment, the value cannot be modified. For complex data types, such as arrays, it is possible to change the contents of the corresponding index number       Yes, but re assignment is not enough, that is, the memory address cannot be changed  

const ary = [100,200];
ary[0] = 'a';
ary[1] = 'b';
console.log(ary);  // ['a','b'];
ary = ['a','b'];  // Assignment to constant variable

3. Differences among VaR, let and const  

Function level scopeBlock level scopeBlock level scope
Variable promotionThere is no variable promotionThere is no variable promotion
The value can be changedThe value can be changedThe value cannot be changed

5, ES6 deconstruction assignment  

ES6 allows you to extract values from the array and assign values to variables according to their corresponding positions. Objects can also be deconstructed  

  1. Array deconstruction

let [a,b,c] = [1,2,3];
console.log(a);  // 1
console.log(b);  // 2
console.log(c); // 3 

If the deconstruction is unsuccessful, the value of the variable is undefined 👇  

let [bar,foo] = [1];  
console.log(foo);  // undefined
console.log(bar);  // 1

  2. Object deconstruction

let person = {name: 'zhangsan', age: 20};
let {name,age} = person;
console.log(name);  // 'zhangsan'
console.log(age);   // 20
//----------------Writing method 2 👇--------------
let {name: myName,age: myAge} = person;  //myName myAge belongs to alias
console.log(myName);  // 'zhangsan'
console.log(myAge);  // 20

  6, ES6 arrow function

  Arrow functions are used to simplify the function definition syntax   

 () => {}

const fn = () => {}

characteristic: ❗  

① There is only one sentence of code in the function body, and the execution result of the code is the return value. Curly braces can be omitted  

function sum(num1,num2) {
    return num1 + num2;
//----------The following code is equivalent to the above------
const sum = (num1,num2) => num1 + num2;

② If there is only one formal parameter, you can omit the parentheses  

function fn(v){
     return v;
//--------The following code is equivalent to the above--------
const fn = v => v;

  this in arrow function

  The arrow function does not bind the this keyword. This in the arrow function points to the context this of the function definition position

const obj = {name: 'zhangsan'}
function fn() {
    return () => {
const resFn = fn.call(obj);
resFn();   // this points to obj and the output is {name: 'zhangsan'}

  Arrow function interview question  

var obj = {
    age: 20,
    say: () => {
    obj.say();  //The output is undefined

obj object cannot generate scope, so this is equivalent to being defined under the global scope, so the return value is   undefined

  7, Remaining parameters and extension operators

  1. Remaining parameters   (...args)

  ① Remaining parameters... args allows us to represent an indefinite number of parameters as an array   

function sum(first, ...args){
     console.log(first);  //10
     console.log(args);  // [20,30]

  ② Put all the obtained values into an array, and then use forEach to traverse, so that different numbers of arguments can be passed in  

const sum = (...args) => {
    let total = 0;
    args.forEach(item => total += item);
    return total;
console.log(sum(10,20));  // 30
console.log(sum(10,20,30));  //60

The remaining parameters are used with deconstruction  

  Just prefix the variable  ...   It means that this is an array, which is used to receive the remaining parameters

let students = ['wangwu','zhangsan','lisi'];
let [s1, ...s2] = students;
console.log(s1);  // 'wangwu'
console.log(s2);  // ['zhangsan','lisi']

  two   Extension operator (expand syntax)  

The extension operator can convert an array or object into a comma separated sequence of parameters

Just add... Before the array name or object name

let ary = [1,2,3];
...ary  // 1,2,3
console.log(...ary);  // 1 2 3
//There is no comma separation when outputting console.log, because the comma of parameter sequence is used as the parameter separator of console.log method, which is equivalent to console.log(1,2,3); So the output is 1 2 3 

  Extension operator application: merging arrays

// Method 1
let ary1 = [1,2,3];
let ary2 = [3,4,5];
let ary3 = [...ary1, ...ary2];

// Method 2

  Application of extension operator: convert pseudo array to real array

    [pseudo array is similar to: many div tags obtained from the page are stored in the pseudo array and converted into an array     You can call the methods in the array]

let oDivs = document.getElementsByTagName('div');
oDivs = [...oDivs];

8, Array instance method   

 1. Array.from()

       Converts a class array or traversable object to a real array

let arrayLike = {

let arr2 = Array.from(arrayLike);  // ['a','b','c']

Method can also accept the second parameter, which is similar to the map method of array. It is used to process each element and put the processed value into the returned array

let arrayLike = {
   '0': 1,
   '1': 2,
   'length': 2

let newAry = Array.from(aryLike,item => item * 2)
// item is the currently traversed object. Multiply the value of each object by 2

 2. find()

    Used to find the first qualified array member. If it is not found, it returns undefined

let ary = [{
    id: 1,
    name: 'Zhang San'
}, {
    id: 2,
    name: 'Li Si'
let target = ary.find((item,index) => item.id == 2);
console.log(target);  // {id: 2, name: "Li Si"}

 3. findIndex()

    Used to find the position of the first qualified array member. If it is not found, it returns - 1

let ary = [1,5,10,15];
let index = ary.findIndex((value, index) => value > 9);
console.log(index); //2

 4. includes() 

    Indicates whether an array contains a given value and returns a Boolean value

[1,2,3].includes(2)  //true
[1,2,3].includes(4)  //false

9, set data structure  

 1. startsWith(),endsWith()

startsWith(): indicates whether the parameter string is at the head of the original string and returns a Boolean value

endsWith(): indicates whether the parameter string is at the end of the original string and returns a Boolean value  

let str = 'Hello world!';
str.startsWith('Hello')  // true
str.endsWith('!')     // true

   2. repeat()

      The repeat method repeats the original string n times and returns a new string  

'x'.repeat(3)  //'xxx'
'hello'.repeat(2)  // 'hellohello'

    3. Set data deconstruction  

      ES6 provides a new data structure Set. It is similar to array, but the values of members are unique and there are no duplicate values

      Set itself is a constructor used to generate a set data structure

 const s = new Set();

      The Set function can accept an array as a parameter to initialize  

const set = new Set([1,2,3,4]); 

        Deconstruction of Set data for array de duplication

const s3 = new Set(['a','a','b','b']);
console.log(s3.size)   // Because the repeated part will be removed
const ary = [...s3];
console.log(ary)   //['a','b']

        Set instance method

  add(value): adds a value and returns the Set structure itself

delete(value): deletes a value and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the deletion is successful

has(value): returns a Boolean value indicating whether the value is a member of Set

clear(): clear all members without return value

const s = new Set();
s.add(1).add(2).add(3);   //Adds a value to the set structure
s.delete(2)    //Delete the 2 value in the set structure
s.has(1)     //Indicates whether the set structure has 1. This value returns a Boolean value
s.clear()   //Clear all values in the set structure

      Traversal Set  

      Like an array, an instance of a Set structure also has a forEach method to perform certain operations on each member without returning a value

s.forEach(value => console.log(value))

  This sharing is over~

Tags: Javascript Front-end ECMAScript

Posted on Thu, 28 Oct 2021 06:24:25 -0400 by ajna