kubeadm deployment k8s

The new version of kubeadm has changed some parameters, the installation method has changed, you can refer to the new version installation method

gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg

By installing the kubeadm kubectl command and the kubelet service with the above repo, the kubelet service on the master is used to start the static pod, and all the components of the master are also static pods

  • kubeadm init starts a Kubernetes master node and adds--image-repository to connect to its own repository, see kubeadm init --help
  • kubeadm join starts a Kubernetes working node and joins it to the cluster
  • kubeadm upgrade updates a Kubernetes cluster to a new version
  • If kubeadm config uses v1.7.x or a lower version of kubeadm to initialize the cluster, you need to do some configuration of the cluster to use the kubeadm upgrade command
  • kubeadm token manages tokens used by kubeadm join
  • kubeadm reset restores any changes made to the host by kubeadm init or kubeadm join
  • Kubeadm version prints kubeadm version
  • kubeadm alpha previews a set of new features available for collection from the community

kubeadm init [flags]
Note that the configuration item kubernetesVersion or command line parameter in the configuration file--kubernetes-version affects the version of the image

If you want to run kubeadm without a network, you need to pre-pull the primary mirror of the selected version:

Image Name  v1.10 release branch version
k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver-${ARCH}   v1.10.x
k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager-${ARCH}  v1.10.x
k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler-${ARCH}   v1.10.x
k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy-${ARCH}   v1.10.x
k8s.gcr.io/etcd-${ARCH} 3.1.12
k8s.gcr.io/pause-${ARCH}    3.1
k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-sidecar-${ARCH}  1.14.8
k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-kube-dns-${ARCH} 1.14.8
k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-${ARCH}    1.14.8
coredns/coredns 1.0.6
 Here v1.10.x means "the latest patch release on the v1.10 branch".

${ARCH} can be the following values: amd64, arm, arm64, ppc64le or s390x.

If you are running a 1.10 or earlier version of Kubernetes and you have set--feature-gates=CoreDNS=true, you must also use coredns/coredns mirrors instead of three k8s-dns-* mirrors.

In Kubernetes version 1.11 and later, you can list and pull related mirrors using the subcommands of kubeadm config images:

kubeadm config images list
kubeadm config images pull
 Starting with Kubernetes version 1.12, the -${ARCH} suffix is no longer required for k8s.gcr.io/kube-*, k8s.gcr.io/etcd, and k8s.gcr.io/pause mirrors.


master node

port Effect User
6443* apiserver all
2379-2380 etcd apiserver,etcd
10250 kubelet self,control,plane
10251 kube-scheduler self
10252 kube-controller-manager self

worker node

port Effect User
10250 kubelet self,control,plane
30000-32767 nodeport service** all

Adjust Kernel Parameters
Vim/etc/sysctl.conf Add

net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1  
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1  

Close firewall and selinux

systemctl disable firewalld  
systemctl stop firewalld  
systemctl stop iptables  
systemctl disable iptables  
setenforce 0 

Then modify the current kernel state

sysctl -p

After changing the yum source to the source at the beginning of the article

yum -y install docker kubelet kubeadm ebtables ethtool

daemon.json configuration:

 "registry-mirrors": ["https://72idtxd8.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]

Add file cat/etc/default/kubelet


It would be an error to start kubelet at this time

failed to load Kubelet config file /var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml, error failed to read kubelet config file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml", error: open /var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml: no such file or directory

Start docker first

systemctl daemon-reload

Then look at what mirrors we need:

[root@host5 kubernetes]# kubeadm config images list

This step is also not very good in the new version because there are no parameters such as print-default.

Because these mirrors are all abroad, they do not meet our installation requirements and we need to replace the installed mirror source.
Our husband makes a profile:

kubeadm config print-defaults --api-objects ClusterConfiguration >kubeadm.conf

In the configuration file:

imageRepository: k8s.gcr.io

Replace with your own private warehouse

imageRepository: docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers

There are times when you need to modify the version of the parameter kubernetesVersion, which I don't need in my actual installation

Then run the command

kubeadm config images list --config kubeadm.conf
kubeadm config images pull --config kubeadm.conf
kubeadm init --config kubeadm.conf

View current configuration

kubeadm config view

The warehouse on the top default does not handle the mirror of coredns. I pull it and process it locally

docker pull coredns/coredns:1.2.6  
docker tag coredns/coredns:1.2.6 mirrorgooglecontainers/coredns:1.2.6  

So let's see

[root@host5 kubernetes]# docker images
REPOSITORY                                                 TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-proxy                v1.13.0             8fa56d18961f        3 months ago        80.2 MB
docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-apiserver            v1.13.0             f1ff9b7e3d6e        3 months ago        181 MB
docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-controller-manager   v1.13.0             d82530ead066        3 months ago        146 MB
docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/kube-scheduler            v1.13.0             9508b7d8008d        3 months ago        79.6 MB
docker.io/coredns/coredns                                  1.2.6               f59dcacceff4        4 months ago        40 MB
docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/coredns                   1.2.6               f59dcacceff4        4 months ago        40 MB
docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/etcd                      3.2.24              3cab8e1b9802        5 months ago        220 MB
docker.io/mirrorgooglecontainers/pause                     3.1                 da86e6ba6ca1        14 months ago       742 kB

Then we run
kubeadm init --config kubeadm.conf

[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:   #######Network also needs to run independently

You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node
as root:

  kubeadm join --token 2rau0q.1v7r64j0qnbw54ev --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:eb792e5e9f64eee49e890d8676c0a0561cb58a4b99892d22f57d911f0a3eb7f2

You can see that you need to execute

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

Otherwise we will get an error when we execute the kubectl command when we access the default port 8080

The connection to the server localhost:8080 was refused - did you specify the right host or port?
[root@host5 ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE              ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok                   
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health": "true"}

In the new version 1.14.1, the above configuration is not required, pack the image into your own private image library and execute it directly:

kubeadm init --image-repository harbor.test.com/k8snew

Then follow the instructions

As you can see below, two pod s are pending because I am not deploying network components and see above that the network needs to be run and installed separately

[root@host5 ~]# kubectl get all --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   pod/coredns-9f7ddc475-kwmxg         0/1     Pending   0          45m
kube-system   pod/coredns-9f7ddc475-rjs8d         0/1     Pending   0          45m
kube-system   pod/etcd-host5                      1/1     Running   0          44m
kube-system   pod/kube-apiserver-host5            1/1     Running   0          45m
kube-system   pod/kube-controller-manager-host5   1/1     Running   0          44m
kube-system   pod/kube-proxy-nnvsl                1/1     Running   0          45m
kube-system   pod/kube-scheduler-host5            1/1     Running   0          45m

NAMESPACE     NAME                 TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE
default       service/kubernetes   ClusterIP    <none>        443/TCP         46m
kube-system   service/kube-dns     ClusterIP   <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP   45m

kube-system   daemonset.apps/kube-proxy   1         1         1       1            1           <none>          45m

NAMESPACE     NAME                      READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kube-system   deployment.apps/coredns   0/2     2            0           45m

NAMESPACE     NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
kube-system   replicaset.apps/coredns-9f7ddc475   2         2         0       45m

Next we're going to deploy calico network components
As we can see from the above init prompt:
Installation of network components can view this page
We download or remotely execute this yaml file
kubectl apply -f calico.yml

image: harbor.test.com/k8s/cni:v3.6.0

image: harbor.test.com/k8s/node:v3.6.0

If you can't download a foreign image, you can refer to my other article "Change Default Mirror Library to Specified".

The current version of related network components has been replaced with v3.7.2

Then we found the following:
kubectl get pod --all-namespaces

NAMESPACE     NAME                                       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   calico-kube-controllers-7c69b4dd88-89jnl   1/1     Running   0          6m58s
kube-system   calico-node-7g7gn                          1/1     Running   0          6m58s
kube-system   coredns-f7855ccdd-p8g58                    1/1     Running   0          86m
kube-system   coredns-f7855ccdd-vkblw                    1/1     Running   0          86m
kube-system   etcd-host5                                 1/1     Running   0          85m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-host5                       1/1     Running   0          85m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-host5              1/1     Running   0          85m
kube-system   kube-proxy-6zbzg                           1/1     Running   0          86m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-host5                       1/1     Running   0          85m

Found all pod s started properly

On node node

Also turn selinux off, adjust kernel parameters, etc.
Then execute

kubeadm join --token 05o0eh.6andmi1961xkybcu --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:6ebbf4aeca912cbcf1c4ec384721f1043714c3cec787c3d48c7845f95091a7b5

If you add a master node, add the --experimental-control-plane parameter

If you forget token, use:
kubeadm token create --print-join-command

journalctl -xe -u docker #See docker Log
journalctl -xe -u kubelet -f #View kubelet's log

dashboard installation

Download image and yaml files

docker pull registry.cn-qingdao.aliyuncs.com/wangxiaoke/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.10.0
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v1.10.0/src/deploy/recommended/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml

The yaml file is as follows:

# Copyright 2017 The Kubernetes Authors.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

# ------------------- Dashboard Secret ------------------- #

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
  namespace: kube-system
type: Opaque

# ------------------- Dashboard Service Account ------------------- #

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system

# ------------------- Dashboard Role & Role Binding ------------------- #

kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-minimal
  namespace: kube-system
  # Allow Dashboard to create 'kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder' secret.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["secrets"]
  verbs: ["create"]
  # Allow Dashboard to create 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["configmaps"]
  verbs: ["create"]
  # Allow Dashboard to get, update and delete Dashboard exclusive secrets.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["secrets"]
  resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder", "kubernetes-dashboard-certs"]
  verbs: ["get", "update", "delete"]
  # Allow Dashboard to get and update 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["configmaps"]
  resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-settings"]
  verbs: ["get", "update"]
  # Allow Dashboard to get metrics from heapster.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["services"]
  resourceNames: ["heapster"]
  verbs: ["proxy"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["services/proxy"]
  resourceNames: ["heapster", "http:heapster:", "https:heapster:"]
  verbs: ["get"]

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-minimal
  namespace: kube-system
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-minimal
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system

# ------------------- Dashboard Deployment ------------------- #

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1beta2
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
      k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
        k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
      - name: kubernetes-dashboard
        image: harbor.test.com/k8s/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.10.0
        - containerPort: 8443
          protocol: TCP
          - --auto-generate-certificates
          # Uncomment the following line to manually specify Kubernetes API server Host
          # If not specified, Dashboard will attempt to auto discover the API server and connect
          # to it. Uncomment only if the default does not work.
          # - --apiserver-host=http://my-address:port
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          mountPath: /certs
          # Create on-disk volume to store exec logs
        - mountPath: /tmp
          name: tmp-volume
            scheme: HTTPS
            path: /
            port: 8443
          initialDelaySeconds: 30
          timeoutSeconds: 30
      - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
      - name: tmp-volume
        emptyDir: {}
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
        effect: NoSchedule

# ------------------- Dashboard Service ------------------- #

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system
  type: NodePort
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30003
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

As above, access within svc is changed to nodeport, mapped to port 30003 of node
After kubectl create
Open the dashboard interface by directly accessing https://nodeip:30003
Tested to find that google browser is not working, firefox is working
But token is required to log in at this time
Next we generate token

kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
  name: admin
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true"
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: admin
  namespace: kube-system
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
  name: admin
  namespace: kube-system
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile

After kubectl create -f

kubectl get secret -n kube-system |grep admin|awk '{print $1}'
kubectl describe secret admin-token-8hn52 -n kube-system|grep '^token'|awk '{print $2}' #Note that the secret here is replaced by the actual

Write down this generated token to log in

After restarting the server, start the kubelet service, then start all containers
swapoff -a
docker start $(docker ps -a | awk '{ print $1}' | tail -n +2)

Reference resources

heapster installation

Mirroring uses image s installed by heapster in another article
There are four yaml files (omitted)

grafana.yaml only needs to modify the following image

        #image: k8s.gcr.io/heapster-grafana-amd64:v5.0.4
        image: harbor.test.com/rongruixue/heapster_grafana:latest

heapster-rbac.yaml does not need to be modified

kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
  name: heapster
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:heapster
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: heapster
  namespace: kube-system

heapster.yaml needs to add volumes to mount and modify image s as well as the following

      serviceAccountName: heapster
      - name: heapster
        #image: k8s.gcr.io/heapster-amd64:v1.5.4
        image: harbor.test.com/rongruixue/heapster:latest
        - mountPath: /srv/kubernetes
          name: auth
        - mountPath: /root/.kube
          name: config

        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        - /heapster
        - --source=kubernetes:https://kubernetes.default?inClusterConfig=false&insecure=true&auth=/root/.kube/config
        - --sink=influxdb:http://monitoring-influxdb.kube-system.svc:8086
      - name: auth
          path: /srv/kubernetes
      - name: config
          path: /root/.kube


inClusterConfig=false: Do not use kube config information in service accounts;
insecure=true: You stole a lazy person here: Choose to trust the server certificate sent by kube-apiserver, that is, not to verify it;
auth=/root/.kube/config: This is the key!When service account is not used, we use the information in the auth file to correspond to the kube-apiserver check.
Otherwise, you cannot connect to apiserver's 6443

Note that after installing v.1.14.1 in the new version, heapster with this version will prompt you not to be authenticated and will use it later

registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/heapster-amd64            v1.5.4
registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/heapster-influxdb-amd64   v1.5.2
registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/heapster-grafana-amd64    v5.0.4

influxdb.yaml only needs to modify the image

      - name: influxdb
        #image: k8s.gcr.io/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.5.2
        image: harbor.test.com/rongruixue/influxdb:latest

The heapster pod error was found after executing kubectl create-f
The--read-only-port=10255 parameter is missing, if it is not present, then heapster will fail to connect to port 10255 of the node when deploying dashboard

E0320 14:07:05.008856       1 kubelet.go:230] error while getting containers from Kubelet: failed to get all container stats from Kubelet URL "": Post dial tcp getsockopt: connection refused

After checking, we found that none of the kubelet s have opened port 10255. The instructions for this port are as follows:

parameter explain Default value
–address Address where the kubelet service listens
–port The port on which the kubelet service listens 10250
–healthz-port Ports for Health Check Services 10248
–read-only-port Read-only port, directly accessible without authentication and authorization 10255

So we want to open this read-only port
When we start the kubelet service on each machine
The startup configuration for this port needs to be added to the configuration file:

vim /etc/sysconfig/kubelet


In this way, we can install successfully:

[root@host5 heapster]# kubectl top node
NAME    CPU(cores)   CPU%   MEMORY(bytes)   MEMORY%   
host4   60m          6%     536Mi           28%       
host5   181m         9%     1200Mi          64%  

Tags: Operation & Maintenance Kubernetes kubelet Docker network

Posted on Fri, 10 Jan 2020 13:55:58 -0500 by basim